MY BODY ANATOMY
The digestive system
Hi there! Do you want to learn about the human body digestive system? It’s a very important and amazing system that helps you turn food into energy and nutrients. Let me tell you how it works and some fun facts about it.
The digestive system is made up of many parts that work together to break down the food you eat and absorb the good stuff your body needs. The main parts are:
• The mouth, where you chew your food and mix it with saliva. Saliva is a liquid that helps moisten and soften the food, and also contains enzymes that start to break down starches, which are a type of carbohydrate.
• The pharynx, which is the back of your throat. It connects your mouth to your esophagus and also helps you breathe.
• The esophagus, which is a long tube that carries food from your pharynx to your stomach. It squeezes the food along with waves of muscle contractions called peristalsis.
• The stomach, which is a sac-like organ that stores food and mixes it with gastric juice. Gastric juice is a very acidic liquid that contains more enzymes and kills harmful bacteria. It breaks down proteins, which are the building blocks of your muscles and other tissues.
• The small intestine, which is a long and narrow tube that coils in your abdomen. It has three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption happens. It receives bile from the liver and gallbladder, and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. Bile helps digest fats, and pancreatic juice helps digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The small intestine also has tiny finger-like projections called villi that increase its surface area and help absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
• The large intestine, which is a wider tube that connects the small intestine to the anus. It has four parts: the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anus. The large intestine absorbs water and some vitamins from the leftover food, and forms stool, which is solid waste. It also contains many bacteria that help with digestion and make some vitamins.
• The liver, which is a large organ that produces bile and filters toxins from the blood. It also stores sugar as glycogen, makes proteins, and regulates cholesterol levels.
• The gallbladder, which is a small sac that stores bile and releases it into the small intestine when needed.
• The pancreas, which is a gland that produces pancreatic juice and hormones such as insulin and glucagon. Insulin helps lower blood sugar levels, and glucagon helps raise them.
Here are some fun facts about the digestive system:
• Your digestive system is about 9 meters long, which is as long as a school bus!
• You produce about 1.5 liters of saliva every day, which is enough to fill two soda bottles!
• Your stomach can hold up to 4 liters of food, which is about 50 chicken nuggets!
• Your small intestine has a surface area of about 250 square meters, which is as big as a tennis court!
• Your large intestine has more than 100 trillion bacteria, which weigh about 2 kilograms!
• You fart about 14 times a day on average, which is normal and healthy!
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